Safety & Health Improvement Program

Click Here for SHIP Toolkit

The Safety & Health Improvement Program (SHIP) was designed to increase supervisor
and SHIP Logopeer support and decrease job strain, which play a key role in safety compliance and improved physical and mental health. SHIP integrates a focus on both health protection and health promotion by addressing psycho-social factors that are shown to be related to safety1, well-being2, and organizational productivity3.

The SHIP intervention study was a NIOSH-funded randomized controlled trial focusing
on supervisors and their teams. SHILearn about SHIPP aimed to increase employee support from supervisors, improve team communication, enhance team effectiveness, and reduce stress and work-family conflict.

The SHIP intervention was composed of:

  • One-hour training for supervisors
  • Behavior-tracking that reinforced the training principles
  • Team-based planning and problem-solving that utilizes a modified version of WFD Leslie Hammer, PhD (PI)
        Consulting's Team Effectiveness Process
  • Follow-up sessions
  • The SHIP intervention was tested in the construction industry and with a sample of 528 employees, we found that the intervention was effective at reducing worker blood pressure4. Learn more about the impact of SHIP.

    The intervention also improved perceptions of work team effectiveness and work-life balance, especially for workers who initially had weaker relationships with their supervisors and coworkers5. Donald Truxillo

    SHIP has been systematically  revised to apply across industries and organizations . The revised SHIP training is now available to implement in your organization.

    Our Partners:

    SHIP Partners 


    Todd & LeslieDigging  What others are saying about SHIP


    1Zohar, D., & Luria, G. (2003). The use of supervisory practices as leverage to improve safety behavior: A cross-level intervention model. Journal of Safety Research, 34, 567-577. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2003.05.0064

    2Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. L. (2011). Clarifying work–family intervention processes: The roles of work–family conflict and family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 134-150. DOI: 10.1037/a0020927
    3Clifton, T. J., & Shepard, E. (2004). Work and family programs and productivity: Estimates applying a production function model. International Journal of Manpower, 25, 714-728. DOI: 10.1108/014377204105700368

    4Hammer, L., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Rineer, J., Pytlovany, A., & Richman, A. (2015). Effects of a workplace intervention targeting psychosocial risk factors on safety and health outcomes: Psychosocial factors and workers health and safety [Special issue]. BioMed Research International, 1-12, DOI: 10.1155/2015/836967

    5Hammer, L., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Pytlovany, A., Richman, A. & Rineer, J. (in preparation). LMX and Work-Family Intervention Effects.


    Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., Pytlovany, A., & Richman A. (in press). Exploration of the impact of organizational context on a workplace safety and health intervention. Work and Stress.

    Yaldiz, L. M., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2018). Do resources matter for employee stress? It depends on how old you are. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 182-194.

    Rineer, J. R., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T. E., Hammer, L. B., & Krainer, M. A. (2017). The moderating effect of perceived organizational support on the relationships between organizational justice and objective measures of cardiovascular health. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 399-410.

    Zaniboni, S., Truxillo, D. M., Rineer, J. R., Bodner, T. E., Hammer, L. B., & Krainer, M. (2016). Relating age, decision authority, job satisfaction, and mental health: A study of construction workers. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 428-435.

    Hammer, L., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Rineer, J., Pytlovany, A., & Richman, A. (2015). Effects of a workplace intervention targeting psychosocial risk factors on safety and health outcomes: Psychosocial factors and workers health and safety. Biomed Research International special issue on Psychosocial Factors and Workers Health and Safety.

    Bodner, T., Kraner, M., Bradford, B., Hammer, L., & Truxillo, D. (2014). Safety, health, and well-being of municipal utility and construction workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56, 771-778.